The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) imposes "Hours of Service" rules on many drivers of commercial vehicles. There is a lengthy and confusing statute that discusses who exactly is subject to the hours of service rules, but that is outside the scope of this page. The FMSCA provides a summary of the hours of service rules here, and we have a discussion of those rules here. Hours of service rules are unfortunately a frequent cause of traffic citations for commercial drivers. The way an hours of service issue comes to the attention of an officer is the driver's logbook.
This is exactly what it sounds like - A driver who is required to maintain a logbook but does not could be charged with a no logbook violation. See 49 CRF 395.8(a)(2).
False or Inaccurate Logbook
There are two situations where this can occur. First, a driver could intentionally falsify a logbook entry so that it appears they are in compliance with the hours of service rules.
A false logbook entry could also be the result of an innocent error. As you might imagine, if the error was innocent, and the driver has documentation to support what should have actually been entered, and the accurate info does not violate any hours of service rules, the chances for a favorable outcome are much better than with an intentional false entry.
Making a false logbook entry is a violation of 49 CFR 395.8(e)(1).
No Record of Duty Status
This violation would come up if a driver is required to have a logbook, but does not, or if the driver actually does have a logbook (or and ELD - electronic logging device), but has not recorded his or her duty status in that logbook. In other words, there is a period of time where there is no data available when there should be.
When there is no data, an investigating officer is unable to determine whether or not the driver is complying with the hours of service rules.
49 CRF 395.8 requires a driver operating a commercial motor vehicle to record the driver's duty status.
Consequences of a Logbook Violation
In Arizona, these violations are charged as misdemeanors crimes. In other words, they carry the potential for jail time as well as fines. In practice, we typically only see fines. The situation would need to be egregious for jail to be a possibility (like a driver violated the hours of service rules and got into an accident).
The driver may also be put out of service at the time a ticket for a logbook violation is issued.